Wire Ropes

Wire Rope Components

1.Wire

2.Strand

3.Core

Rope Size

Measure the circle just touching the extreme outer limits (crown) of the strands.

LAY
Direction of Wire & Strand Helix

Ideal Pulley Groove  

Greater contact area between the rope and the pulley reduces abrasion and enhances service life.

Pulley / Rope Bending Ratio (D/d Ratio)

Note:

The ratios are based on Max. rope speed of 60 meters/min. For each increase in 30 meters/min. in excess of 60 meters/min., add 5% to the drum diameter.

Sr.No.
Construction
D:d Ratio
 
RecommendedMinimum
16x7 (6-1)6442
26x19S (9-9-1)4842
36x26SW (10-5+5-5-1)4530
46x25F (12-6F-6-1)3926
56x31SW (12-6+6-6-1)3926
66x37SF (12-12-6F-6-1)3926
76x36SW (14-7+7-7-1)3322
86x43SF (14-14-7F-7-1)3322
96x50SFS (14-14-7F-7-7-1)3322
106x41SW (16-8+8-8-1)3020
116x49SW (16-8+8-8-8-1)3020
126x49SF (16+16+8F-8-1)3020
136x46SW (18-9+9-9-1)2718
146x52SW (18-9+9-9/6-1)2718
156x55SF (18-18-9F-9/6-1)2718
168x19S (9-9-1)3926
178x26SW (10-5+5-5-1)3624
188x25F (12-6F-6-1)3322
198x31SW (12-6+6-6-1)3322
208x37F (12-12-6F-6-1)3322
218x36SW (14-7+7-7-1)2919
228x50SFS (14-14-7F-7-7-1)2919
2317x7 (11:16-1)5234
2418x7 (12:6-FC)5234
2519x7 (12:6-1)5234
2634x7 (17:11/6-FC)4530
2735x7 (16:6+6-6-1)6140
286x25FS (12/12/D)4832
296x8FS (7/D)7348
306x28FS (15/12/D)4530
31Locked Coil Winding Rope152100

Spooling / Anchorage of Rope on Drum

  • Ropes are supplied with zero internal torque
  • Improper spooling induces torque in rope, reducing rope life

Rope Cutting Procedure

Note

Seizing wire recommendation

  • for ungalvanised rope - use annealed wire
  • for galvanised rope - use soft, zinc-coated wire.
  • Diameter of wire: 8 - 24 mm = 1 mm

        25 - 36 mm= 1.6 mm
        38 - 56 mm = 2 mm

  • Recommended sizing length. = 1xdmin or 10 wraps

Rope Clamping

Note:

Improper fixing of clamps may lead to safety hazards. For proper clamping standards, refer applicable standards or OEM recommendations.

In-Use Lubrication

  • Usha Martin ropes are supplied with a special lubricant
  • Periodic lubrication during usage is necessary to derive enhanced performance

Handling - The right way

  • Use spindle through the reels for loading / unloading or put the rope on a swift with brake arrangement.
  • Allow clearance for free rotation of reel when the rope end is pulled.
  • Maintain constant tension during haul off.
  • Prevent crossing of rope laps on the reel.
  • Avoid possible kink, which is a permanent damage to a rope.

 

Wire Rope Characteristics

BEND FATIGUE AND ABRASION RESISTANCE 

  • More wires - better fatigue resistance
  • Less wires -better abrasion resistance

COMMONLY USED ROPE (NON-COMPACTED) CHARACTERISTICS SIMPLY STATED.

  • More wires in the outer strand (14 for 36WS) will improve bend fatigue
  • Less wires in the outer strands (9 for 19S) improve wear/abrasion resistance characteristics
  • Steel core (IWRC) resists drum crushing better than fibre core
  • Langs lay resists interference at drum better than ordinary lay

Abrasion Resistance

Comparison of outer wire sizes for 25 mm diameter rope as illustration

 

6 x 7
6 outer wires
2.54 mm
6 x 19S9 outer wires2.11 mm
6 x 25F12 outer wires1.70 mm
6 x 3614 outer wires1.49 mm
6 x 4116 outer wires1.34 mm

COMPARISON OF ROTATION RESISTANCE

 

COMPACTED ROPES CHARACTERISTICS SIMPLY STATED

  • Increased breaking force
  • Increased performance
  • Improved characteristics
    • Improved wear resistance
    • Improved crushing resistance
    • Improved Bend Fatigue resistance

High breaking load per unit area

 

Compacted rope minimum breaking force

Compacted rope minimum breaking force

Conventional rope minimum breaking force

Conventional rope minimum breaking force

High Abrasion Resistance

 

At cross-over points due to high fill factor

At cross-over points due to high fill factor

Greater bend fatigue resistance

Greater bend fatigue resistance

At lower layers in multilayer operation

At lower layers in multilayer operation

PLASTICIZED ROPE CHARACTERISTICS SIMPLY STATED (Cushion Core - Compacted outer  strands)

 

  • Plastic impregnation of core (IWRC)
  • Greater resistance to drum crushing
  • Increases abrasion resistance
  • Smoother exteriors and greater surface area resulting in reduced sheave wear
  • Reduced IWRC and outer-strand nicking & crosscutting
  • High fatigue life

 

Comparison of bend fatigue illustration

Comparison of bend fatigue illustration

 PLASTICATED ROPE CHARACTERISTICS SIMPLY STATED (plastic Valley Filled)

  • Full Plastic impregnation
  • Reduces wire contact stress & interstrand nicking
  • Retains lubrication inside & does not require in-service lubrication
  • Prevents ingress of solid abrasives & reduces internal corrosion
  • Provides greater and better wear & abrasion resistance
  • Minimizes bend stress over sheaves and increases fatigue life
  • Ideally suitable for mining application

 

Comparison of service life (mining application)

Comparison of service life (mining application)

TERMINATION FAILURE

TERMINATION FAILURE

SHOCK LOADING

SHOCK LOADING

FATIGUE FAILURE

FATIGUE FAILURE

ABRASION

ABRASION

BIRD CAGE

BIRD CAGE

THERMAL DAMAGE

THERMAL DAMAGE

CORROSION

CORROSION

DISCARD CRITERIA

  • For single-layer construction, if the reduction in diameter is greater than 8% (eg. 6x7).
  • For multiplayer construction, if the reduction in diameter is greater than 5% (eg. 6x19, 6x36 etc.)
  • Total no. of visible broken wires exceed 10% of total no. of wires in the rope, in a length of 8 x dia. of rope or 3 or more adjacent broken wires in a stand.
  • Evidence of considerable plastic wear or surface embrittlement.
  • Localised distortion, damage or kink, bird-caging, crushing.
  • Localised diameter reduction or lay variation associated with waviness. Collapsed core or one strand broken coupled with wire looseness and bulging.
  • Corrosion / chain pitting & associated fatigue of wires.
  • Damage due to heat / fire.
  • Rope has been subjected to severe shock load or overload due to some accident with equipments.
  • End-fitting / attachments damaged or cracked or deformed or worn out.

Note:

The inspector should also refer to International Standards like ISO 4309 and BS 6570 or any other relevant standard for the purpose, as a tool, for discarding a wire rope.

RECOMMENDED DO'S & DON'TS DO’S

  • Lubricate ropes with good quality acid free and moisture free lubricant.
  • Regularly inspect the sheaves, rollers or pulleys-the life of a rope largely depends on their conditions.
  • Inspect ropes and fittings / terminations periodically.

DONT’S

  • Do not allow ropes in store to deteriorate
  • Do not mishandle ropes when uncoiling or unreeling & allow kinks to form.
  • Do not use Langs lay with a swivel
  • Do not cut a rope without seizing.
  • Do not use rope which is not sufficiently flexible for he size of drum or pulley.
  • Do not load the rope beyond its safe working load. Reduction of safety factor may jeopardise not only rope, but also equipment, job and men.

Note:

Remember - Care in handling, installation, and careful inspection gives more life and enormous dividends.

Mining Ropes (Underground & Opencast)

 

 

HYLEX 4 (Fibre Core)

HYLEX 4                (Fibre Core)

ROUND STRAND (Steel Core) 6/19S (9-9-1)

ROUND STRAND (Steel Core) 6/19S (9-9-1)

ROUND STRAND (Steel Core) 6/36SW (14-7+7-7-1)

ROUND STRAND (Steel Core) 6/36SW (14-7+7-7-1)

HYFLEX 6 x 19

HYFLEX 6 x 19

HYFLEX 35P

HYFLEX 35P

SHIPPING ROPE 6x24 (15/9)Fibre)

SHIPPING ROPE 6x24 (15/9)Fibre)

ROUND STRAND (Fibre Core) 6/19F (12-6F+6-1)

ROUND STRAND (Fibre Core) 6/19F (12-6F+6-1)

TITAN DRILLING LINES 6x19 class rope with CWR (IWRC) (Bright)

TITAN DRILLING LINES 6x19 class rope with CWR (IWRC) (Bright)

HYFLEX 6 x 36

HYFLEX 6 x 36

HYFLEX 8

HYFLEX 8

SHIPPING ROPE 6x37 (18/12/6/1)

SHIPPING ROPE 6x37 (18/12/6/1)

ROUND STRAND (Steel Core) 6/19F (12-6F+6-1)

ROUND STRAND (Steel Core) 6/19F (12-6F+6-1)

HOIST & COMPENSATING ROPE 8x19S (9-9-1)

HOIST & COMPENSATING ROPE 8x19S (9-9-1)

HYFLEX 18

HYFLEX 18

HYFLEX 8P

HYFLEX 8P

ROUND STRAND (Fibre Core) 6/19S (9-9-1)

ROUND STRAND (Fibre Core) 6/19S (9-9-1)

ROUND STRAND (Fibre Core) 6/36SW (14-7+7-7-1)

ROUND STRAND (Fibre Core) 6/36SW (14-7+7-7-1)

GOVERNOR ROPES 6/25F (12-6F+6-1)

GOVERNOR ROPES 6/25F (12-6F+6-1)

HYFLEX 35

HYFLEX 35

POWERFORM® 8PC

POWERFORM® 8PC

WHY USHA MARTIN ROPE?

GUARANTEED RAW MATERIAL QUALITY

  • Developed, manufactured and quality certified by own Steel Plant.
  • Tailor made raw materials to ensure consistent rope quality and desired end-properties.

GUARANTEED PRODUCT QUALITY

  • State-of-the-art pickling plant.
  • State-of-the-art patenting furnaces.
  • Latest generation wire-drawing machinery
  • Computerised rope design.
  • In-house developed rope making machinery for manufacturing high-performance ropes.
  • Breaking load and fatigue test equipment to guarantee desired performance and quality.

GUARANTEED QUALITY SYSTEMS

  • ISO 9001:2000
  • API
  • OTIS
  • ABS
  • LLOYDS
  • NKK
  • JIPM

QUALITY POLICY

Our quality policy is to fulfil customers’ requirement through reliable products and services meeting all regulatory requirements and through continual improvement of our quality management system.

ROBUST PROCESS CONTROL

 

  • Qualified supervisors & operators trained in own institution on product process and equipment.
  • Regular training of operations staff at HRD center.
  • Visual display of process parameters at each stage of processing.
  • Stringent quality control at every stage of manufacturing.

TPM policy

“It is our policy to induce change in all employees by delegation, empowerment and motivation to achieve total participation towards zero accident, zero defect and zero failure.”

 HOW TO ORDER A ROPE

  • Nominal Diameter and tolerance.
  • onstruction/Class/Brand Name.
  • Finish (galvanized or ungalvanised)
  • Tensile Strength
  • Minimum Breaking load requiement.
  • Core-Fibre/IWRC/WSC.
  • Lay-eg. Right hand regular lay.
  • Lubrication
  • Packing wooden reel/steel reel/coils.
  • Particulars of fittings
  • Performed / Non-preformed
  • Exact length per reel / coil etc (special length tolerance, if any)
  • Delivery time
  • Special requirements
    • Pre-stretching
    • Packaging
    • Identification
    • Third-party inspection

 

 

SAFETY INFORMATION

  • Wire rope will fail if worn out, shock loaded, overloaded, misused, damaged, improperly maintained or abused.
  • Always inspect wire rope for wear, damage or abuse before use.
  • Never use a wire rope which is worn out, damaged, corroded or abused.
  • Never overload or shock load a wire rope.
  • Use the correct design factor for the application.
  • Inform yourself : Read and understand the machinery manufactures handbook and guidance from the wire rope manufacturer.
  • Refer to applicable directives, regulations, standards and codes concerning inspection, examination and rope removal criteria.

Note: Note: All statements, technical information and recommendations contained herein are believed to be reliable, but no guarantee is given as to their accuracy and/or completeness. The user must
determine the suitability of the product for his own particular purpose, either alone or in combination
with other products and shall assume all risk and liability in connection therewith. Whilst every attempt has been made to ensure accuracy in the content of the tables, the information contained in this catalogue does not form any part a contract

in.
mm.
in.
mm.
in.
mm.
118103.9715/1623.83728863.5
417144.76125.43802069.9
116895.564237027376.2
416436.353944828.63804782.6
417757.944237230.23731688.9
417069.533798731.83804995.3
4183611.13945034.94101.6
4164112.73725738.138078108
4189814.34237441.337347114.3
4176715.93798944.538080120.7
4195917.53945447.65127
4170219250.8
13/1620.63947954
4182822.23801857.2

CONVERSION TABLE
 
 
 
 
Length1m!ERROR! expecting operator, implicit multiplication not allowed.!ERROR! unexpected comma!ERROR! unexpected comma
Force1kN!ERROR! unexpected comma!ERROR! unexpected comma!ERROR! expecting operator, implicit multiplication not allowed.
Tensile Strength1N/mm!ERROR! unexpected comma!ERROR! unexpected comma!ERROR! expecting operator, implicit multiplication not allowed.
Cross Section1mm!ERROR! unexpected comma
Weight1 metric t!ERROR! expecting operator, implicit multiplication not allowed.
!ERROR! unexpected comma!ERROR! unexpected comma!ERROR! unexpected comma
Weight per Length Unit1 kg/m!ERROR! unexpected comma